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Jeep CJ Rebuilder's Manual: 1972 to 1986

The Willys CJ is a public variation of the well-known Willys Military Jeep from World War II.

The initially CJ prototype was introduced inside 1944 by Willys, as well as the same standard car stayed inside manufacturing by 7 variants plus 3 business parents till 1986.

A variant of the CJ continues to be inside manufacturing now beneath license. The last CJs, the CJ-7 plus CJ-8, were changed inside 1986 by the Jeep Wrangler.

Additionally accessible were two-wheel-drive variants, termed as DJs. A drawbar is a strong coupling between a hauling car as well as its hauled weight. Drawbars are inside usual employ with rail transport, road trailers, both big plus tiny, commercial plus recreational, plus with agricultural equipment.By 1944, the Allies were confident the war will be earned. This authorized Willys with consider designing a Jeep for the post-war civilian marketplace. Documentation is scarce, however, it appears a Willys-Overland CJ-1 was running by May of which year. The CJ-1 was apparently an MB which had been modified by adding a tailgate, drawbar, along with a civilian-style canvas top. None of the CJ-1s built have survived, plus it happens to be unknown how countless were built.
The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep as well as the Ford GPW were produced from 1941 with 1945. These little four-wheel drive utility cars are considered the iconic World War II Jeep, plus inspired several synonymous light utility cars. Over the years, the World War II Jeep later evolved into the "CJ" civilian Jeep. Its counterpart inside the German military was the Volkswagen Kübelwagen, initial prototyped inside 1938, furthermore based about a tiny car, nevertheless that utilized an air-cooled engine plus wasn't four-wheel drive.

Just 2 firms entered: American Bantam Car Company plus Willys-Overland Motors. Though Willys-Overland was the low bidder, Bantam received the call, being truly the only firm committing with deliver a pilot model inside 49 days plus creation examples inside 75. Under the leadership of designer Karl Probst, Bantam built their initial prototype, dubbed the "Blitz Buggy", plus delivered it with the Army car test center at Camp Holabird, Maryland about September 23, 1940. This presented Army officials with all the initially of what eventually evolved into the World War II U.S. Army Jeeps: the Willys MB plus Ford GPW.
The Bantam no.1 'Blitz Buggy'

Because Bantam didn't have the manufacturing ability or fiscal stability with deliver found on the scale required by the War Department, the additional 2 bidders, Ford plus Willys, were encouraged with complete their own pilot models for testing. The contract for the unique reconnaissance automobile was with be determined by trials. As testing of the Bantam prototype took area from September 27 with October 16, Ford plus Willys technical representatives present at Holabird were provided ample chance with research the vehicle's performance. Moreover, inside purchase with expedite creation, the War Department forwarded the Bantam blueprints with Ford plus Willys, declaring the government owned the shape. Bantam didn't dispute this move due with its precarious financial condition. By November 1940, Ford plus Willys every submitted prototypes with compete with all the Bantam inside the Army's trials. The pilot models, the Willys Quad as well as the Ford Pygmy, turned out especially synonymous with every different plus were joined inside testing by Bantam's entry, today evolved into a Mark II called the BRC 60. By then your U.S. as well as its armed forces were absolutely beneath these stress which all 3 vehicles were announced acceptable plus orders for 1,500 units per business were provided for field testing. At this time it was recognized the authentic fat limit was unrealistic, plus it was raised with 2,160 lb.

For these respective pre-production runs, every car received revisions along with a brand-new name. Bantam's became the BRC 40. Production started about March 31, 1941, with a total of 2,605 accumulated with December 6. The organization couldn't meet the Army's need for 75 Jeeps a day, creation contracts were additionally granted with Willys plus with Ford.

After reducing the vehicle's fat by 240 pounds, Willys' changed the designation with "MA" for "Military" model "A". The Fords went into manufacturing because "GP", with "G" for a "Government" kind contract plus "P" popular by Ford with designate any passenger vehicle with a wheelbase of 80 inches.
Willys MA jeep at the Desert Training Center, Indio, California, June 1942
Willys MB employed by previous Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay

By July 1941, the War Department desired with standardize plus decided with choose a single producer to provide them with all the upcoming purchase for another 16,000 cars. Willys earned the contract largely due with its more effective engine that soldiers raved about, as well as its lower expense plus silhouette. The shape attributes the Bantam plus Ford entries had that were an improvement over Willys' were then included into the Willys vehicle, moving it from an "A" designation with "B", therefore the "MB" nomenclature. Many notable became a flat broad bonnet, modified from Ford GP.

By October 1941, it became obvious Willys-Overland couldn't continue with manufacturing need plus Ford was contracted with make them also. The Ford vehicle was then designated GPW, with all the "W" referring with the "Willys" certified shape. During World War II, Willys yielded 363,000 Jeeps plus Ford several 280,000. Approximately 51,000 were exported with the U.S.S.R. beneath the Lend-Lease system.

A further 13,000 amphibian jeeps were built by Ford below the name GPA. Inspired by the heavier DUKW, the car was yielded too rapidly plus proven with be too thick, too unwieldy, plus of insufficient freeboard. In spite of participating effectively inside the Sicily landings many GPAs were routed with the U.S.S.R. below the Lend-Lease system. The Soviets were sufficiently happy with its ability with cross canals with develop their own adaptation of it following the war, the GAZ-46.
Although it bore the CJ name, the Willys-Overland CJ-2 wasn't absolutely accessible at retail. The CJ-2s, sometimes known because "AgriJeeps," were the 2nd generation prototype for the initially creation civilian Jeep, plus were employed only for testing reasons. It was straight based found on the military Willys MB, utilizing the same Willys Go Devil engine, however stripped of all military attributes, very the blackout light. They had tailgates, Power Take-offs, engine governors, column-shift T90 manual transmissions, 5.38 gears, 2.43:1 low-range transfer instances, plus driver's-side tool indentations. The earlier models had brass plaques found on the bonnet plus windshield which read "JEEP". Later models were stamped "JEEP" a la the familiar "WILLYS" stamping which appeared found on the CJ-2A plus later models. Many CJ-2s had "AgriJeep" plaques affixed with the dash. The spare tire was installed forward of the passenger-side back wheel found on the earlier models plus aft of the back wheel about later ones. It appears which CJ-2s were distributed with "agricultural stations" for evaluation reasons. Of the 45 CJ-2s built, serial numbers CJ2-06, CJ2-09, CJ2-11, CJ2-12, CJ2-14, CJ2-26, CJ2-32, CJ2-37 plus CJ2-39 have survived. Just CJ2-09 has been restored.
The classes learned with all the CJ-2 led with the development of the initial full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 Willys-Overland CJ-2A. The CJ-2A looked a lot like a civilianized MB with a tailgate plus side-mounted spare tire. One main difference involving the MB as well as the CJ-2A was the grilles of the 2 cars. The MB had recessed headlights plus nine-slot grilles when the CJ2A had greater headlights flush-mounted inside a seven-slot grille. In spot of the MB's T-84 transmission, the CJ-2A was built with the beefier T-90 three-speed transmission. The CJ-2A was nevertheless driven by the reliable L-134 Go-Devil engine. Many of the early CJ-2As were yielded utilizing excess military Jeep components like engine blocks plus, inside a limited instances, modified frames. Many of the utilization of excess components was due with strikes at dealers like Autolite. Since Willys yielded some components in-house plus relied seriously about dealers, it was vulnerable with strikes. Unfortunately for Willys, strikes were widespread postwar. This definitely provided with low manufacturing totals inside 1945 plus early 1946.

Because the CJ-2A was generally intended for farming, ranching, plus commercial applications, a broad range of extras were accessible these as: back seat, center rear-view mirror, front passenger seat, canvas top, front PTO, back PTO, belt pulley drive, capstan winch, governor, back hydraulic lift, snow plow, welder, generator, mower, disk, front bumper fat, heavy-duty springs, double vacuum windshield wipers, double taillights, hot-climate radiator, driveshaft guards, heater, side procedures, plus radiator brush protect.

CJ-2As were yielded with distinctive, lively color combinations which inside several techniques symbolized the hope plus promise of postwar America. From 1945 with mid-1946, CJ-2As were just obtainable in 2 color combinations: Pasture Green with Autumn Yellow wheels plus Harvest Tan with Sunset Red wheels. More color combinations added inside mid-1946 were: Princeton Black with Harvard Red or Sunset Red wheels, Michigan Yellow with Pasture Green, Sunset Red or Americar Black wheels, Normandy Blue with Autumn Yellow or Sunset Red wheels, plus Harvard Red with Autumn Yellow or Americar Black wheels. The Pasture Green plus Harvest Tan combinations were dropped later inside 1946. The Harvard Red combinations were dropped inside 1947 plus changed with Picket Gray with Harvard Red wheels, plus Luzon Red with Universal Beige wheels. In 1948, the following color combinations were equally added: Emerald Green with Universal Beige wheels, Potomac Gray with Harvard Red or American Black wheels. For 1949, the Picket Gray, Michigan Yellow, plus Normandy Blue combinations were dropped. Olive drab was additionally accessible for export models.

On early CJ-2As, the front seats were covered inside olive drab plastic. Around mid-1947, Slate Gray plastic became accessible for certain color combinations. Later, Barcelona Red was put into the blend.

A total of 214,760 CJ-2As were yielded.The Willys-Overland CJ-3A was introduced inside 1949 plus was inside creation till 1953 whenever changed by the CJ-3B. It was driven by Willys' 60 HP L-134 "Go-Devil" 4-cylinder engine, with a T-90 transmission plus Dana 18 transfer case, a Dana 25 front axle plus Dana 41 or 44 back axle. It showcased a one-piece windshield with a vent in addition to wipers at the bottom. The CJ-3A had beefed up suspension to support the different agricultural implements which were being built for the car. Another difference had been a shorter back wheelwell found on the 3A compared with 34 inside found on the 2A) plus moving the motorists seat rearward. A bare-bones Farm Jeep adaptation was accessible beginning inside 1951 with a energy takeoff. 131,843 CJ-3As were yielded before the series ended inside 1953. Regarding 550 of the CJ3-A were assembled by Mitsubishi because the J1/J2 inside late 1952 plus early 1953, only for the Japanese authorities plus forestry agency.
The Willys F4-134 Hurricane was an inline-4 piston engine plus driven the well-known Jeep CJ inside the CJ-3B, CJ-5, plus CJ-6 models. It was additionally employed inside the Willys 473 plus 475 pickups, wagons, plus sedan deliveries. It changed the Willys Go Devil engine that has been utilized inside the M8 Jeep plus additional early Jeep-based models like the Jeepster. This engine was equally built by Mitsubishi for their license-built Jeep, and also alternative applications.
The Hurricane was based found on the earlier Go-Devil flathead engine. To receive more force within the engine, the induction program was change within the Go-Devil's side-valve configuration with an inlet-over-exhaust configuration, or "F-head". This permitted the valves with be bigger as well as the combustion room with be small, improving flow plus improving the compression ratio. The compression ratio rose from 6.5:1 inside the Go-Devil engine with 7.5:1 inside the Hurricane engine, though a variation of the Hurricane engine was prepared with a 6.9:1 compression ratio.
The L134 Go Devil was up-to-date with all the F-head with become the F134 inside 1950. This engine yielded a gross output of 75 hp at 4000 rpm plus 114 lb·ft of torque at 2000 rpm with a 7.5:1 compression ratio. The gross force plus torque outputs fell with 72 hp plus 112 lb·ft respectively whenever the engine had a 6.9:1 compression ratio. Bore plus stroke dimensions were the same because the L-head engine at 3 1⁄8" x 4 3⁄8" providing 134.2 cu inside.

The F4-134 was introduced inside 1950 inside the Jeep Truck. Vehicles with this engine were provided the model designation 4-73. This engine wasn't located inside a CJ till the introduction of the CJ-3B inside 1953, that had a distinctive significant bonnet to support the much taller engine. The engine stayed inside creation till 1971, following American Motors Corporation bought Kaiser Jeep.
The Willys CJ-3B changed the CJ-3A inside 1953, the same year Willys was available with Kaiser. Kaiser removed "Overland" within the subcompany name. CJ-3B introduced a high grille plus bonnet with clear the fresh Willys Hurricane engine. A four-speed guide transmission became optional inside 1963, at an additional expense of 4. The turning radius was 17 ft 6 inside. The CJ-3B was yielded till 1968 with a total of regarding 196,000 yielded, though the shape was equally certified with a quantity of global producers, including Mitsubishi of Japan plus Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi's adaptation was built from 1953 till 1998, when Mahindra continued with make cars based found on the Willys CJ-3B till October 1, 2010. The CJ-3B was additionally built by Türk Willys Overland. It was the initial car plant with be opened inside Turkey, inside 1954.
Locking hubs, sometimes known because free wheeling hubs are an accessory fitted with countless four-wheel drive cars, permitting the front wheels with be manually disconnected within the front half shafts.

Because numerous 4WD cars, specifically thick duty 4×4 pickups, never have a center differential or equal, they ought to be utilized inside 4WD mode just whenever traction is limited: tiny variations inside rotational speed between your front plus back wheels which happen whenever driving inside 4WD about a dry, difficult surface result a torque with be used over the transmission, a phenomenon recognised as transmission wind-up may happen, plus could result considerable damage with the transmission or drive train; about loose surfaces, these rotational speed variations are absorbed by tire slippage.

Consequently, many 4-wheel-drive cars are fitted with “part-time” 4WD systems: they is flipped from 2-wheel-drive mode, where just the back wheels are driven by the drivetrain, with 4-wheel-drive mode, where all 4 wheels are driven by the drivetrain. Many of these cars might invest almost all of their amount of time in 2WD: locking hubs enable the components of the drivetrain which are utilized for 4-wheel-drive with be disconnected. With the hubs disengaged, as well as the transfer case inside 2WD, the whole front axle plus differential are inactive.

Suggested advantages of locking hubs include greater fuel efficiency, quieter surgery, less vibration, plus lower wear; nevertheless, there are no reliable scientific research with confirm these claims. How wonderful these advantages are is available to debate, with various feeling which they are outweighed by the disadvantages under.

In elder cars, manual locking hubs are utilized with disengage the front wheels. This demands getting off/out of the car with engage or disengage the front wheels. If road conditions are irregular, these cars is selected inside 2WD mode with all the locks involved plus 4WD requires just with be involved from inside the car whenever road conditions need it.

In more contemporary 4WD cars, automatic locking hubs are usually chosen that, because the name signifies, engage automatically whenever 4WD is triggered from inside the car. The principal benefit is the fact that the driver refuses to should leave the car with activate 4WD, or drive the car inside 2WD with all the front axle involved. The disadvantage with this program is the fact that many designs need the car with move several distance following engaging 4WD, inside purchase for the hubs with engage or disengage. This may not be potential when the car gets completely stuck before 4WD has been involved, meaning automatic hubs need more caution found on the driver's element.

Exposed hub locks is broken or damaged by off-road conditions, rendering 4×4 useless plus exiting the car stranded. Also, in certain axle designs, the best swivel bearing may become starved for lubrication, except the hubs are secured each some 100 miles. Additionally, because locking hubs usually never need a vital to work, they is maliciously secured or unlocked by people different than the car owner.

The firm was available with American Motors inside 1970, as well as the GM engine was retired following the 1971 model year. The "Trac-Lok" limited-slip differential changed the "Powr-Lok" inside 1971.

American Motors started utilizing their own motors inside 1972. Replacing the Hurricane was the one-barrel 232 cu inside. Optional became a one-barrel 258 cu inside. Both motors utilized the Carter YF carburetor. Additionally inside 1972, AMC's 304 cu inside V8 engine became obtainable in the same tune because a base V8 muscle automobile. To accommodate the brand-new motors, the fenders plus bonnet were stretched 5 inside beginning inside 1972 as well as the wheelbase was stretched 3 inside. Other drive train changes took destination then too, including the front axle becoming a full-floating Dana 25. In 1973, a fresh dash was selected, with a single gauge inside the center of the dash housing the speedometer, gas plus temperature gauges.

In 1976, the tub plus frame were modified somewhat from earlier versions. The frame went from an open channel with boxed inside front of the back axle, as well as the body tub became more rounded. The windshield frame plus windshield angle were additionally changed, meaning which tops from 1955 with 1975 will likely not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 plus vice-versa. The back axle was equally changed inside 1976 from a Dana model 44 with an AMC-manufactured model 20 that had a larger-diameter ring gear nevertheless employed a two-piece axleshaft/hub assembly rather of the stronger one-piece shape chosen inside the Dana. But, certain early-production 1976 CJ-5's retained the elder Dana model 44 till stock of these was depleted.

For 1977, energy disk brakes as well as the "Golden Eagle" package were hot choices.

In 1979, the standard engine became the 258 cu inside I6 which today showcased a Carter BBD two-barrel carburetor.

An AM/FM radio became optional inside 1981.

From 1980 with 1983, the CJ-5 came standard with a "Hurricane"-branded variation of the GM Iron Duke I4 with an SR4 close-ratio four-speed manual transmission. The 258 cu inside I6 stayed accessible because an alternative, however, the transmission was changed within the Tremec T-150 3-speed with a Tremec T-176 close-ratio four-speed. The Dana 25 front axle was retained, yet the locking hubs were changed with ones utilizing a five-bolt retaining pattern.

The CJ-6 was merely a 20 inside longer-wheelbase CJ-5. Introduced inside 1955 because a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was not popular inside the United States. Most CJ6 models were available with Sweden plus South America. The U.S. Forest Service place a quantity of CJ-6 Jeeps into utilize. American sales ended inside 1975. Simply 50,172 had been created whenever the series went from manufacturing completely inside 1981. Simply because inside the CJ-5, the V6 plus V8 engine options appeared inside 1965 plus 1972.

The military variation, the M170, really entered creation inside 1953. It shared most highlights of the M38A1, however, had the passenger door starting extended back with the back wheel perfectly. Most were utilized because front-line field ambulances, capable with carry 4 litters. A some were moreover selected because radio units.

The Brazilian Willys factory developed a adaptation of the CJ5 truly synonymous with the CJ6, available with either 2 or 4 doorways. Called the "Willys Jeep 101" it shared the chassis of the area Rural, a redesigned Willys Jeep Station Wagon. Like the Brazilian-made CJ5s, the 101 has square back wheel openings. This variation was introduced inside 1961 however wasn't retained following Ford's takeover inside the fall of 1967.
The Jeep CJ-7 showcased a wheelbase 10 inches longer than which of the CJ-5 plus lacked its trademark back curve of the door cutouts. The different key difference with the CJ-5 was with the chassis that hitherto consisted of 2 parallel longitudinal key c-section rails. To assist boost car handling plus stability, the back section of the chassis stepped out with enable the road springs plus dampers with be installed closer with the outside of the body. It was introduced inside 1976, plus 379,299 were built throughout 11 years of manufacturing.

The Jeep CJ-8 had been a lengthy wheel-base variation of the CJ-7, introduced inside 1981 plus produced by 1986. It showcased a 103 inside wheelbase along with a removable half-cab, creating a tiny pick-up design box rather of using the separate pickup bed. CJ-8s selected the conventional transfer case with manual front-locking hubs with engage the four-wheel drive. Many had either a 4 or five speed guide transmission, yet a 3 speed automatic transmission was an alternative.

The expression "Scrambler" originates from an appearance package which countless CJ-8's were loaded with, that included tape images plus specialized wheels. Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ-8 plus selected it about his California Ranch.

A full size steel hardtop CJ-8 was produced for the Alaskan Postal Service, utilizing appropriate hand drive plus automatic transmissions. Instead of the back tailgate, the steel hardtop used the hinged barn door starting with the back. There were just 230 yielded plus available inside the U.S. It was equally commonly available inside Venezuela plus Australia because the CJ8 Overlander, with tiny variations including full size back windows found on the Overlander. Steel hardtops employed about these postal Scramblers plus Overlanders were termed as "World Cab" tops.

The Jeep CJ-10 became a CJ-bodied pickup truck based about a seriously modified Jeep J10 pickup truck. Produced from 1981 with 1985, it was available plus crafted for export markets; Australia inside certain. They showcased square headlights installed inside the fenders along with a nine-slot grille, a homage with the Willys MB employed inside World War II; all different civilian Jeeps had a seven-slot grille. The CJ-10 might have either a hardtop or perhaps a softtop. The truck may be prepared with handle either a 5,900 lb or 6,700 lb GVW. Three machines were offered; an 198 cu inside six-cylinder Nissan built diesel engine, an 151 cu inside 4 cylinder AMC built engine or perhaps a 258 cu inside six cylinder AMC built engine. The driveline was mostly within the bigger J series pickups; consisting of either a 4 speed Tremec T177 guide transmission or perhaps a 3 speed TorqueFlite A727 automatic transmission, a New Process 208 transfer case, a semi-floating Dana 44 front differential, plus either a semi-floating Dana 44 or Dana 60 back differential, depending about GVW rating. Importation of the CJ-10 into Australia ended inside 1985 with all the drop of the Australian dollar's value causing the car with be more costly than its competitors.

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