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Volkswagen VW Commercial Type 2 Series 1973-1981

The Volkswagen means 2, recognized officially (depending on body type) since the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, given that coach (US) or Camper (UK), try a cabover panel van launched in 1950 because of the German automaker Volkswagen as its 2nd vehicle design. Appropriate -- and at first deriving from Volkswagen's very first design, the sort 1 (Beetle) -- it was given the factory designation Type 2.

As one of the forerunners associated with modern-day cargo and passenger vans, the nature 2 provided rise to forward control competitors in the United States into the sixties, such as the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, additionally the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the second following the sort 2's rear-engine setup. European competitors included the 1960s FF layout Renault Estafette therefore the FR layout Ford Transit.

Like the Beetle, the van has gotten numerous nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", and, due to its recognition during the counterculture movement of this 1960s, Hippie van/wagon, whilst still being stay iconic for several hippies these days.

Brazil included the last factory in the field that produced the T2. Manufacturing in Brazil stopped on December 31, 2013, as a result of introduction of most stringent safety laws in the nation. This marks the end of an era with all the rear-engine Volkswagens made (after the 2002 cancellation of their T3 successor in Southern Africa), which started in 1935 using their kind 1 prototypes.

The concept for the Type 2 was credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It offers similarities in concept to the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion vehicles by Buckminster Fuller, neither which hit manufacturing.) Pon seen Wolfsburg in 1946, going to buy Type 1s for import to your Netherlands, in which he spotted an improvised parts-mover and discovered something better was possible using the stock Type 1 cooking pan. He very first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 pound) and placing the motorist at the very forward. Manufacturing will have to wait, however, as factory is at capacity producing the Type 1.

When capacity freed up, a model known internally due to the fact kind 29 ended up being produced in a quick 90 days. The stock means 1 cooking pan turned out to be also weak therefore the model put a ladder framework with unit human anatomy building. Coincidentally the wheelbase is exactly like the nature 1's. Engineers used again the decrease gear from Type 81, allowing the 1.5 ton van to utilize a 25 hp (19 kW) flat four engine.

Although the aerodynamics of very first prototypes were bad (with an initial drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), designers put the wind tunnel during the Specialized University of Braunschweig to enhance the design. Easy adjustment such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" assisted the production kind 2 realize Cd=0.44, exceeding the kind 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's brand new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) accepted the van for production on 19 might 1949 as well as the earliest manufacturing design, now designated kind 2, rolled from the assembly-line to debut 12 November. Only two products had been provided: the Kombi (with two part microsoft windows and center and backside seats that have been quickly detachable by one individual), additionally the industrial. The Microbus ended up being added in May 1950, accompanied by the luxurious Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s had been produced in their very first year of manufacturing.

An ambulance design is added in December 1951 which repositioned the gas tank as you're watching transaxle, place the extra tire behind the leading chair, and included a "tailgate"-style rear door. These functions became standard in the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s are integrated the 1951 model 12 months. We were holding joined up with by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, and it also changed the smallest amount of associated with Type 2s until all are heavily changed in 1968.

Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved continuously eventually but never saw the introduction of all-new brands, the Transporter not merely evolved, but had been totally modified sporadically with variations retrospectively named variations "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature best designed following the introduction for the front-drive T4 which changed the T25). However, just years T1 to T3 (or T25 as it is nonetheless labeled as in Ireland and the uk) is visible as straight associated with the Beetle (read below for details).

The sort 2, combined with the 1947 Citron H Van, tend to be among the first 'forward controls' vans in which the driver had been put above the front roadwheels. They began a trend in Europe, where 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC furthermore put the concept. In the usa, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van moved so far as to copy the kind 2's rear-engine layout, utilising the Corvair's horizontally opposed, air-cooled motor for energy. Aside from the Greenbrier and various 1950s--70s Fiat minivans, the kind 2 remained special in being rear-engined. This is a disadvantage when it comes to very early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which could maybe not quickly become packed through the backside as the motor cover intruded on interior space, but generally beneficial in traction and interior noise.

The Volkswagen Samba, in america also known as Sunroof Deluxe, was the most luxurious version of the Volkswagen Transporter T1. Volkswagen started creating Sambas in 1951. Into the sixties this variation became popular as a hippie bus.

Initially Volkswagen Vans had been categorized in accordance with the quantity of microsoft windows they had. This specific model have 23 and later 21 house windows like eight panoramic house windows into the roof. To distinguish it through the typical 23 or 21-window Volkswagen van title Samba was created.

As opposed to a sliding home within part the Samba have two pivot doors. Besides the Samba had a fabric sunroof. During those times Volkswagen marketed using the concept of utilising the Samba which will make tourist trips through the Alps.

Sambas were standard painted in two colors. Frequently, the top of part is colored white. Both colored parts are divided by a decorative strip. Further the bus have a so-called "hat": at the front end regarding the van the roof is a little more than the automobile it self to stop the sun's rays the motorist. The windows had chrome tables together with van had an even more extensive dashboard compared to regular T1.

When Volkswagen began creating the successor of this T1 (the T2) the company additionally stopped producing the Samba so there are no Sambas in later variations of Volkswagen Transporter.

Between 1951 and August 1958, about 1,000 Camper container sales were created by Westfalia, official creator of Volkswagen camper conversions. In August 1958, the SO (German: Sonderausfhrung, German for "unique model") products were introduced.

Westfalia unique systems included the SO-23, -33 -34, -35, -42, -44, and -45.

Westfalia Campers were available from Volkswagen dealers global and had been also delivered through the visitor distribution Program --- wherein a customer would pick-up their brand new van in Germany, drive it in Europe, then VW would send they to the consumer's residence. Most Volkswagen Campers were bought by United states servicemen and delivered home in the 1950s and sixties.

From 1979 until 1992 Westfalia Vanagon are built.
Traditional gear
1970 Camper internal

Various foldout seat arrangements for resting
Birch plywood inside panels
Laminated plywood cabinetry for storage
Ice box or cold-box
Sink (some models)
Liquids storage and pump
Electrical hookups
Screened jalousie (Venetian blind) microsoft windows
Laminated folding dining table

Optional equipment
Westfalia split-windshield camper with alternatives

Attached "pop up" tops with canvas/screen sides
Awnings and part tents
a lightweight chemical bathroom
A camping stove
Numerous camping equipment
Youngster sleep cot in driver cab
Storing box which fits internal. Is placed between front side seats by sliding door.
Back move dining table
Small chart dining table installed on dash
Automatic Transmission (starting in the 1970s)
Air-con (dealership installed) (from 1954)

Awnings and side tents
T1 Camper with side tent

Some tent and side awning designs are available as extra-cost improvements. Collectors usually have difficulty deciding whether one of these brilliant choices had been particularly offered by and for Westfalia designs, or are created and offered by more camper conversion suppliers including ASI/Riviera and Sundial.

SO-22 "camping box" stage (1952--58). During this time period no tent per se had been offered by Westfalia, but you can obtain a striped canvas awning that extended virtually along the automobile, and longer about six ft out to the side. The awning frame appears to be like the SO-23 stage large tent described below. This earliest of Westfalia tents try revealed on the address for the July, 1955 dilemma of prominent Mechanics plus a 1956 pamphlet that defines they as "a big, colorful side awning."

SO-23 deluxe camper (1958--1965). Two tent alternatives had been readily available during this time period. One ended up being similar to the 1952--1958 awning, with the addition of removable part curtains, and various other had been a small vestibule or foyer that just covered the medial side door room. These had no names apart from "large tent" and "tiny tent," additionally the bigger any seems to have already been available with and without your bathrooms as explained below.
VW coach with affixed smaller tent
The small tent

The small tent, available in either red/white or blue/gray stripes, was less popular and so was less often seen today. It comprises of a single bit of hefty fabric, with a strip of plastic across the base acting as a reinforcement and splash shield. It meets on the side-door opening (and contains a gap for one leg associated with roofing rack) as a sort of foyer or vestibule. It is large enough for 2 adults to stand inside, but little else, and had been probably meant as a means to getting inside and out of this camper in cold or wet weather.

The stripes were about four ins wide. The tent is about four feet large by three ft deep, and inside headroom try more than six legs. A lengthy white zipper operates within the center of the front, while the straight back are available and contoured to match the bus. The frame is comprised of four steel poles which fit into pouches in the the surface of the tent and lock together to make a square. Feet on two for the poles squeeze into brackets of bolted towards the camper's roofing. Two additional poles dogleg to the top framework and possess small chain-hooks to put up the doors available. The reduced finishes of these poles fit into holes into the jack supports. Plastic grommets protect the paint from the doorways as well as the jack things. The low side of the tent is protected towards the floor with about a dozen material stakes. Each stake is all about six ins long and is formed from hardened 1/4" rods with a loop at one end. Two space bags made of (usually matching) fabric with fabric straps is provided for the tent and poles.
VW coach with connected huge tent
The big tent with optional awning aids

The large tent, probably a modification associated with SO-22 awning model, has also been known as the "privy tent" because most products seen these days posses a bathroom in back side wall. It is a zippered, metre-square area that sticks out toward the back, and is held up by telescoping poles and guy ropes. Open grommets are placed nearby the top for air flow.

This tent is frequently observed in a yellow/blue-grey stripe, but had been also available in red/white, orange/blue, orange/white, and green/white. The tent's frame supports to brackets on the roof and bumpers. The front bumper mount are a set bowl of metal curved into an open S or Z form. Tent poles become steel, either black colored or grey, around 2 cm in diameter, and you can find fourteen sections that must definitely be put together to produce a rectangular, peaked awning with help rods ultimately causing the bumpers. When the awning happens to be establish, curtains could be connected to the three exterior edges (with Tenax lift-the-dot fasteners) to reach a weatherproof - though windowless and floorless - transportable refuge. Leather straps protected the sidewalls toward support poles, and stakes hold the base sides down much like the little tent. An extra set of poles and stakes were accessible to enable the outer flap become extended horizontally as an additional awning, causing a sizable shaded area privately regarding the bus.
VW bus with affixed freestanding tent
The framed tent

The framed tent (1965--1967). Here is the biggest & most colorful associated with the Westfalia part tents. It is distinctive from the sooner smaller and enormous awning-based tents in two essential techniques: the addition of big, screened house windows quietly curtains, and a free-standing framework that enables the tent is remaining at the campsite although the coach try driven away for groceries or side trips. The tent also offers a rear door that can be zipped sealed at these types of period. Both front and rear flaps are rolled up-and presented open by cloth ties or (on subsequent designs) straps with lift-the-dot fasteners.

This is actually the last Westfalia tent produced when it comes to Split-windshield bus and is arguably probably the most collectible version; its tents alone, in good shape, were offered for above US,000.
VW bus with freestanding bay window ten-
Freestanding design (1968 and later buses)

Early bay-window tent. When Volkswagen transitioned towards the bay-window or breadloaf design with large, single curved windshield and sliding side door, the Westfalia camper ended up being customized to incorporate an angled poptop. This design supplied space for a large child's cot expense, and on later on brands, the poptop was further increased to match the full sleep big enough for two adults.

The add-on part tent underwent a total redesign. The brand new design (regarded in promotion content as an Add-a-Room tent or a Motent) superficially resembles the late Split-windshield's framed tent overall shape and colors, but is usually quite different. For starters, the tent's framework is currently exterior, with all the canvas supported by flexible loops and synthetic hooks, somewhat like a shower curtain. Instead of a single opening front side panel, there is certainly a zippered display home in the front (part from the coach) with a small awning flap which can be decreased for wind and rainfall security. This tent also features a waterproof flooring, as well as the attachment technique on the vehicle side results in a securely closable protection (i.e., no longer space underneath the bus floors).

Other WV tents: numerous internet sites (read links in References part) provide details about various other Westfalia (and otherwise VW-supplied) tents, plus aftermarket tents supplied by more makers, in Vanagon and Transporter/Eurovan times (1980 presenting).

M-Codes are used to identify the vehicle factory alternatives. Starting in 1958, a metal dish was riveted towards the back for the correct forward seat. The plate lists the date of manufacture, and various choices that were incorporated in to the vehicle.

The knowledge included the time of make, the possibility rules, the export destination, design quantity and paint finish (typically a durable finish known as Nitro-Lacquer), the paint color rules in addition to VIN or serial quantity.

The concept for the Type 2 is paid to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It offers similarities in idea towards the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion automobile by Buckminster Fuller, neither which hit production.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to buy Type 1s for import towards Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover and noticed one thing better is possible making use of the stock Type 1 pan. He very first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 pound) and putting the motorist during the extremely forward. Production will have to wait, but whilst the factory is at capability making the Type 1.

Whenever capacity freed up, a prototype recognized internally since the kind 29 is produced in a short three months. The stock kind 1 cooking pan turned out to be also weak so the prototype utilized a ladder framework with unit human anatomy building. Coincidentally the wheelbase ended up being just like the sort 1's. Designers used again the decrease gear through the Type 81, allowing the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) flat four motor.

Even though the aerodynamics regarding the earliest prototypes are bad (with a preliminary drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), designers put the wind tunnel during the Specialized institution of Braunschweig to optimize the look. Easy modifications including splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" assisted manufacturing means 2 obtain Cd=0.44, surpassing the nature 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's newer ceo Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) approved the van for manufacturing on 19 might 1949 therefore the first production design, now designated kind 2, rolled from the assembly line to debut 12 November. Just two versions were provided: the Kombi (with two side windows and center and rear chairs that have been quickly removable by one individual), and also the retail. The Microbus ended up being added in May 1950, accompanied because of the luxurious Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s are produced in their particular earliest season of manufacturing.

An ambulance model ended up being added in December 1951 which repositioned the gas container in front of the transaxle, place the free tire behind the front seat, and added a "tailgate"-style rear home. These properties became standard on Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s had been built-in the 1951 model season. They were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, also it changed the smallest amount of for the Type 2s until all had been heavily changed in 1968.

Unlike various other back system Volkswagens, which evolved continuously in the long run but never ever saw the introduction of all-new designs, the Transporter not merely evolved, but was completely modified occasionally with variants retrospectively called versions "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature only created after the introduction of front-drive T4 which replaced the T25). However, only years T1 to T3 (or T25 since it is however labeled as in Ireland and Great Britain) can be seen as right regarding the Beetle (read below for information).

The kind 2, together with the 1947 Citron H Van, tend to be among the first 'forward control' vans when the driver had been put over the front roadwheels. They going a trend in European countries, in which the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC also made use of the idea. In the us, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went in terms of to duplicate the nature 2's rear-engine design, utilizing the Corvair's horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine for energy. With the exception of the Greenbrier and different 1950s--70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 stayed unique in being rear-engined. It was a disadvantage for early "barndoor" Panel Vans, that could not effortlessly be filled through the back because the system address intruded on interior space, but typically beneficial in grip and interior noise.
Volkswagen Samba coach
Exemplory case of a 1961 Volkswagen means II flatbed vehicle.
Rail-going draisine

The sort 2 was readily available as a:

Panel van, a shipping van without side windows or rear seating.
Double-door Panel Van, a distribution van without part windows or back seating and cargo doorways on both side.
Tall roofing Panel Van (German: Hochdach), a distribution van with raised roof.
Kombi, from German: Kombinationskraftwagen (combination car), with part house windows and detachable back chairs, both a traveler and a cargo automobile combined.
Bus, also known as a Volkswagen Caravelle, a van with an increase of comfortable internal reminiscent of traveler vehicles since the 3rd generation.
Samba-Bus, a van with skylight microsoft windows and cloth sunroof, first generation just, also known as a luxurious Microbus. They were promoted for touring the Alps.
Flatbed vehicle, or Single taxi, in addition available with broader load sleep.
Crew taxi pick-up, a flatbed truck with extensive taxi and two rows of seating, also referred to as a Doka, from German: Doppelkabine.
Westfalia camping van, "Westy", with Westfalia roof and internal. Included optional "pop up" top.
Adventurewagen camping van, with high roofing and camping units from Adventurewagen.
Semi-camping van that can also be put as a passenger vehicles and transporter, compromising some camping conveniences. "Multivan" or "Weekender", offered by the next generation on.

Besides these factory variations, there have been numerous third-party conversion rates readily available, some of which were supplied through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire machines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by organizations except that Westfalia. There were even 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines built for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1955.

In South Africa, it really is generally a well-loved difference of this frozen dessert van (very first, second and third generations). The mere picture of 1 (in Southern Africa) sparks the familiar rhyme: we shout, We shout, all of us shout for Ice-Cream!
First-generation (T1; 1950--1967)
Volkswagen Type 2 (T1)
VW Type2 T1c Kombi.jpg
Producer Volkswagen
Production 1950--1967 (Europe and US)
1950--1975 (Brazil)
Assembly Wolfsburg, Germany
Hanover, Germany
Therefore Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Melbourne, Australia
Body and framework
Course Light commercial car (M)
Human body design 5-door panel van
5-door minibus
2-door pickup (regular cab)
4-door pickup (team taxi)
Design RR design
Platform Volkswagen Group T1 system
System 1.1 L B4 (petrol)
1.2 L B4 (petrol)
1.5 L B4 (petrol)
1.6 L B4 (petrol)
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Size 4,280 mm (168.5 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

The initial generation regarding the Volkswagen kind 2 using separate windshield, informally called the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among contemporary enthusiasts, had been made out of 8 March 1950 through the end regarding the 1967 design year. From 1950 to 1956, the T1 (not called that during the time) is integrated Wolfsburg; from 1956, it was built on brand-new Transporter factory in Hanover. Just like the Beetle, the very first Transporters put the 1100 Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in), DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp), air-cooled flat-four-cylinder 'boxer' engine attached when you look at the rear. This is enhanced into 1200 -- an 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in) 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp) in 1953. A higher compression ratio became standard in 1955; while an unusual early form of the 30 kW (41 PS; 40 bhp) motor premiered exclusively on Type 2 in 1959. This motor turned out to be therefore uncharacteristically troublesome that Volkswagen remembered all 1959 Transporters and changed the machines with an updated type of the 30 kW system. Any 1959 brands that hold that very early motor nowadays were true survivors. Considering that the motor is completely discontinued at the outset, no parts had been ever before offered.

Early models regarding the T1 until 1955 were known as the "Barndoor" (retrospectively known as T1a considering that the 1990s), due to the huge back motor address, whilst the later models with a slightly changed human body (the roofline above the windshield are longer), modest system bay, and 15" roadwheels instead of the original 16" ones is today labeled as the T1b (once more, just called this because the 1990s, centered on VW's restrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. naming program.). From 1963 design seasons, when the rear door had been made wide (identical to regarding bay-window or T2), the vehicle could possibly be known as the T1c. 1964 in addition spotted the introduction of an optional sliding door for passenger/cargo room rather than the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans.

In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter was launched as a factory option. It showcased a cargo capability of 1,000 kg (2,205 pound) instead of the previous 750 kg (1,653 lb), smaller but larger 14" roadwheels, and a 1.5 Le, 31 kW (42 PS; 42 bhp) DIN engine. This was therefore effective that just a-year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter had been discontinued. The 1963 model year launched the 1500 engine -- 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in) as standard products toward United States markets at 38 kW (52 PS; 51 bhp) DIN with an 83 mm (3.27 in) bore, 69 mm (2.72 in) stroke, and 7.8:1 compression ratio. Whenever Beetle received the 1.5 L system for 1967 design seasons, their power is risen up to 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) DIN.
1966 Volkswagen Kombi (The United States)

German manufacturing stopped following the 1967 model 12 months; but the T1 nevertheless ended up being built in Brazil until 1975, with regards to had been customized with a 1968--79 T2-style forward end, and big 1972-vintage taillights to the so-called "T1.5" and produced until 1996. The Brazilian T1s are not the same as the final German models (the T1.5 was locally manufactured in Brazil utilizing the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where pre-1965 human anatomy design is retained), though they sported some characteristic attributes of the T1a, including the cargo doorways and five-stud 205 mm (8.1 in) Pitch Circle Diameter rims. Wheel monitors varied between German and Brazilian manufacturing along with 14-inch, 15-inch and 16-inch wheel alternatives but frequently front track varied from 1290 mm to 1310 mm and back track from 1370 mm to 1390 mm.
VW Bus kind 2 (T1), hippie colors

Among US lovers, it is common to mention into different models by the few their house windows. The basic Kombi or Bus could be the 11-window (a.k.a. three-window bus due to three negative microsoft windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin home microsoft windows, six back part microsoft windows, plus one rear window. The DeLuxe design showcased eight back part windows and two rear spot microsoft windows, rendering it the 15-window (unavailable in Europe). Meanwhile, the sunroof DeLuxe featuring its extra eight smaller skylight house windows are, accordingly, the 23-window. Through the 1964 model season, featuring its wide back door, the trunk spot microsoft windows had been stopped, making the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. The 23- and later 21-window variations each bring the nickname 'Samba', or in Australia, formally 'Alpine'.

Several engineering options can restrict move axle dealing with difficulties, with varying profits:

Anti-roll club: As a design alternative, a front anti-roll club that may ameliorate the swing axle vehicles's managing -- shifting pounds transfer towards front outboard tire, significantly reducing rear slide angles---thereby avoiding potential oversteer.
Single-pivot aim: Mercedes-Benz addressed the handling problems by making move axles with a single-pivot point located beneath the differential, hence better below the axle. This setup markedly paid off the habit of "jack-up" additionally the later low pivot swing-axle equipped vehicles are praised in modern magazines because of their maneuvering. The low-pivot swing-axle remained in production with Mercedes-Benz W108 280SE and 300SEL until 1972. It was fitted to the 300SEL 6.3, that has been throughout the very early 70s the worlds fastest manufacturing sedan. AMG-modified 6.3s are in addition raced utilizing the stock move axle.
Tire pressure differential: The Renault Dauphine, Volkswagen Beetle and first generation Chevrolet Corvair (1960--1964) made use of a tire pressure differential technique to expel oversteer characteristics of these swing axle suspensions --- particularly low front and large back tire force --- which caused understeer. However, the tire force differential method offered an important disadvantage: people and mechanics could accidentally but effortlessly re-introduce oversteer traits by over-inflating the front tires (which, to typical pressures for any other cars along with other suspension systems) or by inflating all tires to the same pressure. The potency of this choice had been criticized in legal actions in the US during the sixties.
Z-bar and roll-inducing springs: Mercedes-Benz launched, to assist their low-pivot swing-axle, a coil spring attached transversally over the differential, which may transfer burden from 1 side to the other, in order to push down one wheel if the other side gone up. This coil springtime increases the burden bearing capability of rear suspension, so an innovative new lower pressure collection of springs is substituted for the usual ones to keep ride suppleness. A similar impact was accomplished by VW's Z-bar, a roll-bar, in the place of anti-rolling club. Both products boost the rolling tendency of this rear axles, hence reducing the oversteering tendency. Aftermarket roll-inducing springs, also referred to as camber compensators, are offered for Porsche, VW and early Corvairs, which reduce oversteering tendencies on cost of increasing suspension harshness.

In late 1967, the 2nd generation associated with the Volkswagen means 2 (T2) had been launched. It absolutely was built-in Germany until 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel are made out of 1970 to 1994. Brands before 1971 tend to be known as the T2a (or "Early Bay"), while models after 1972 are known as the T2b (or "later Bay").
1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup (The Netherlands)
1973--1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) van (Australia)
T2 used as an ambulance in Brazil

This second-generation Type 2 shed their unique split front side windshield, and is somewhat larger and dramatically heavier than their predecessor. Their typical nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, or Loaf and Bay for brief. At 1.6 L and 35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) DIN, the motor was also slightly bigger. The latest design furthermore did away using move axle back suspension and transfer boxes used to raise ride level. Instead, half-shaft axles installed with continual velocity joints lifted ride level without wild alterations in camber associated with Beetle-based move axle suspension. The up-to-date coach transaxle is normally desired by off-road racers using air-cooled Volkswagen equipment.

The T2b was introduced through gradual change over 36 months. The initial brands featured rounded bumpers including one step for use whenever door is open (changed by indented bumpers without measures on later brands), front doorways that started to 90 from human anatomy, no lip on the forward protections, unique motor hatches, and crescent air intakes into the D-pillars (later models following the Type 4 motor alternative ended up being offered, posses squared down intakes). The 1971 means 2 featured a unique, 1.6 L system with twin intake harbors on each cylinder mind and ended up being DIN-rated at 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp). An important changes included the development of front side disk brakes and brand-new roadwheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. Up to 1972, forward signs is set reasonable regarding nostrils instead of high on either side of the oxygen grille -- providing increase for their becoming nicknamed "minimum lighting". 1972's most prominent changes was a larger engine area to match the more expensive 1.7- to 2.0-litre machines from the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear-end which eliminated the removable back apron and launched the larger belated tail lights. Air inlets are furthermore increased to allow for the increasing cooling air requirements associated with larger machines.

In 1971 the 1600cc means 1 motor as used in the Beetle, had been supplemented utilizing the 1700cc Type 4 system -- since it had been initially created for the Type 4 (411 and 412) versions. European vans held the option of upright lover Type 1 1600 engine but the 1700 kind 4 became standard for people spec brands.
Pre-facelift (kept) and facelifted (right) Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans (Australia)

Within the kind 2, the nature 4 engine had been an alternative the 1972 design year onward. This engine had been standard in designs destined for the people and Canada. Only with the kind 4 system did a computerized transmission be available for the first occasion in 1973 design year. Both engines displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW (67 PS; 66 bhp) aided by the manual transmission and 46 kW (63 PS; 62 bhp) aided by the automated. The Type 4 engine is enlarged to 1.8 L and 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) DIN the 1974 model year and once more to 2.0 L and 52 kW (71 PS; 70 bhp) DIN for the 1976 model 12 months. The 1978 2.0 L now showcased hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the requirement to periodically adjust the valve clearances as on prior versions. The 1975 and later U.S. model years got Bosch L-Jetronic electronic gas injection as standard equipment; 1978 had been 1st seasons for digital ignition, making use of a hall impact sensor and digital operator, getting rid of maintenance-requiring contact-breaker guidelines. As with all Transporter engines, the focus in developing was not on energy, but on low-end torque. The kind 4 machines were significantly more powerful and sturdy than the means 1 machines, especially in Transporter services.

In 1972, when it comes to 1973 design 12 months, outside changes included relocated forward change indicators, squared down and put greater inside valance, above the headlights. In addition, square-profiled bumpers, which became standard before the end of T2 in 1979, had been introduced in 1973. Crash security improved using this change as a result of a compressible construction behind the front bumper. This designed your T2b had been with the capacity of satisfying United States protection guidelines for passenger cars of that time period, though not necessary of vans. The "VW" emblem in the front side valance became somewhat smaller.

Later design changes had been mainly mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had attained its last form. Really later in T2's build life, during late 1970s, 1st prototypes of means 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) were built and tested.

Volkswagen Transporter Type 2 T2

Site about Volkswagen Transporter Type 2: history, technical solutions, the use of the family and the business, development of the series.

VW Bus: T2 for Sale

Volkswagen Transporter T2 For Sale. ... VW Bus for Sale, 1971 Transporter Price: SOLD Year of construction 1971. Volkswagen Transporter T2A for sale in Everett, ...

Volkswagen Type 2 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a cabover ...

1957 Volkswagen T2 Pickup/race-car transporter - Classic ...

Offered for sale is a 1.6L 1957 Volkswagen T2 Pickup/race-car transporter manual that has been with the current owner for the last 2 years. Coming with a partial ...

Volkswagen Transporter T2 is back...!? | VW Bus

Volkswagen Transporter T2 - classic sixties and even a cult car. Europeans can now go back to their youth by buying a brand new Camper on the basis of the van.

Volkswagen Transporter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Volkswagen Transporter, based on the Volkswagen Group's T platform, now in its sixth generation, refers to a series of vans produced over 60 years and marketed ...

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VW Volkswagen Commercial Type 2 Kombi series d Repair Manual 1973 - 1981 Gregorys 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


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