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How to Rebuild Your Volkswagen Air-Cooled Engine 1961 onwards

The Volkswagen air-cooled motor are an air-cooled boxer engine with four horizontally opposed cast-iron cylinders, cast aluminum alloy cylinder heads and pistons, magnesium crankcase, and forged steel crankshaft and linking rods.

Variants for the engine are created by Volkswagen flowers worldwide from 1936 until 2006 for use in Volkswagen's own vehicles, particularly the Type 1 (Beetle), Type 2 (coach, transporter), Type 3, and kind 4. Additionally, the machines were popular in professional, light aircraft and system automobile applications.

Just like the Volkswagen Beetle created following the war, initial Volkswagen Transporters (coach) utilized the Volkswagen air-cooled engine, a 1.1 litre, DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS, 24 bhp), air-cooled four-cylinder "boxer" engine mounted within the back. The 22-kilowatt (29 PS; 29 bhp) variation became standard in 1955, while a unique early form of the motor which developed 25 kilowatts (34 PS; 34 bhp) debuted exclusively on the Volkswagen kind 2 (T1) in 1959. Any instances that retain that very early system these days are real survivors -- because the 1959 system was totally discontinued first, no section are ever made available.

The second-generation Transporter, the Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) utilized a somewhat larger type of the system with 1.6 litres and 35 kilowatts (48 PS; 47 bhp).

A "T2b" Type 2 is introduced by means of gradual change-over three years. The 1971 means 2 featured an innovative new, 1.6-litre motor, today with double consumption harbors for each cylinder head, and was DIN-rated at 37 kilowatts (50 PS; 50 bhp).

The Volkswagen kind 3 (saloon/sedan, notch-back, fastback) was designed with a 1.5-litre system, displacing 1,493 cubic centimetres (91.1 cu in), in line with the air-cooled flat-4 based in the Type 1. Although the longer block remained exactly like the nature 1, the motor air conditioning had been redesigned decreasing the height for the system profile, enabling greater cargo amount, and making the nicknames of "Pancake" or "Suitcase" system. This system's displacement would later on augment to 1.6 litres.

Originally just one- or dual-carburetor 1.5-litre engine (1500N, 33 kilowatts (45 PS; 44 bhp) or 1500S, 40 kilowatts (54 PS; 54 bhp)), the kind 3 engine obtained a bigger displacement (1.6 litre) and modified in 1968 to incorporate Bosch D-Jetronic electric fuel shot as a choice, which makes it the first mass-production customer automobiles with such an attribute (some sports/luxury cars with limited production works earlier have fuel injection).
1000

1938-1942 KdF-Wagen
1941-1942 Volkswagen Kbelwagen

1100

1942-1944 Volkswagen Schwimmwagen
1942-1945 Volkswagen Kbelwagen, Volkswagen KdF-Wagen
1945--1953 Volkswagen Beetle
1950--1953 Volkswagen Type 2

1200

The 30 kilowatts (40 hp) 1.2-litre may be modified by adding a big-bore system, enabling larger cylinders and pistons from inventory 77 millimetres (3.03 in) to 83 millimetres (3.27 in) while maintaining the inventory crankshaft, cam, mind, etc. and supplying to a 25per cent power result enhance.
1300

1285cc Single slot 1966-1970 Twin port 1971-1975
1500

1493cc Single slot best. 1967--1970 in Euro/US Beetle.

1967--1971 VW Puma

1600

1584cc

Solitary slot

The 1600 solitary interface had been used on listed here designs:

1966--1970 Kind 3
1968--1970 Type 2
1970 Beetle (US just)
1970 Karmann Ghia (US just)

Twin interface

The 1600 double port was utilized on listed here products:

1971 onwards Type 2 (only 1971 in USA -- superseded by means 4 motor)
1971--1979 Beetle
1971--1974 Karmann Ghia
1971--1989 VW Puma


In 1968, Volkswagen launched a automobile, the Volkswagen Type 4. The model 411, and later the design 412, supplied most new qualities into the Volkswagen lineup.

Although the kind 4 ended up being discontinued in 1974 whenever purchases fallen, its motor became the power plant for Volkswagen kind 2s made out of 1972 to 1979: it continuing in modified form within the subsequent Vanagon that has been air-cooled from 1980 until mid-1983.

The system that superseded the nature 4 engine in belated 1983 retained Volkswagen Type 1 design, yet showcased water-cooled cylinder minds and cylinder coats. The wasserboxer, Volkswagen terminology for a water-cooled, opposed-cylinder (level or 'boxer engine') is subsequently discontinued in 1992 using introduction of this Eurovan.

The nature 4 system was also utilized on the Volkswagen type of the Porsche 914. Volkswagen versions originally was included with an 80 horse power (60 kW) fuel-injected 1.7-litre flat-4 motor on the basis of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine. In European countries, the four-cylinder automobiles were offered as Volkswagen-Porsches, at Volkswagen dealerships.

Porsche stopped the 914/6 variant in 1972 after creation of 3,351 models; its place in the lineup had been filled by a variant running on a new 95 metric horse power (70 kW; 94 bhp) 2.0-litre fuel-injected version of Volkswagen's Type 4 system in 1973. For 1974, the 1.7-litre engine ended up being changed by a 76 metric horse power (56 kW; 75 bhp) 1.8-litre, plus the newer Bosch L-Jetronic gas injection system was put into American units to help with emissions control. 914 manufacturing finished in 1976. The 2.0-litre motor continued to be found in the Porsche 912E, which provided an entry-level design through to the Porsche 924 was introduced.

When it comes to Volkswagen Type 2, 1972's most prominent change is a bigger system storage space to match the bigger 1.7- to 2.0-litre motors through the Volkswagen means 4, and a redesigned buttocks which removed the removable back apron. The air inlets had been in addition enlarged to allow for the increased cooling atmosphere desires associated with the larger motors.

This all-new, bigger motor is usually known as the nature 4 motor as opposed to the past Type 1 motor first launched in Type 1 Beetle. This engine had been called "Type 4" because it is initially created for the nature 4 (411 and 412) cars. There isn't any "Type 2 system" or "Type 3 engine", because those motors did not showcase newer engine styles whenever introduced. They used the "Type 1" system through the Beetle with minor modifications eg rear mount conditions and various air conditioning shroud plans, even though the Type 3 performed establish fuel shot from the "Type 1" motor.

Within the kind 2, the Volkswagen kind 4 motor had been an alternative from 1972. This system is standard in versions destined the United States and Canada. Just with the Type 4 motor did an automatic transmission become available for the first occasion in 1973. Both machines displaced 1.7 litres, ranked at 66 metric horsepower (49 kW; 65 bhp) using manual transmission, and 62 metric horse power (46 kW; 61 bhp) with all the automatic. The kind 4 motor was increased to 1.8 litres and 68 metric horsepower (50 kW; 67 bhp) in 1974, and again to 2.0 litres and 70 metric horse power (51 kW; 69 bhp) in 1976. As with all Transporter engines, the main focus in developing was not on motive energy, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 motors had been significantly more robust and sturdy compared to Type 1 motors, particularly in Transporter provider.

During 1970s, in Brazil, Volkswagen offered the 1700 cc motor for the regular manufacturing vehicles SP-2. The 1700 cc motor had been just like the 1600 cc variation, but with enlarged cylinder bores.

Up to 2001, Beetle motors had been also accustomed operate several of the ski lifts on Thredbo ski resort in unique South Wales, Australian Continent, and had been preserved to a high standard by Volkswagen mechanics.

In addition in Australian Continent, in remote opal mines, Volkswagen engines are changed to atmosphere compressors for jack hammers, etc. They put two cylinders on a single part as a motor, and modified the top on the other side to produce a flow of compressed air. The opal industries are very dried out and hot, so an air-cooled compressor has an advantage over liquid-cooled. Beginning in 1987, Dunn-Right Incorporated of Anderson, sc makes a kit to execute the conversion to compressor.
Industrial

Volkswagen AG features officially offered these air-cooled boxer engines to be used in professional applications since 1950, lately under their Volkswagen Industrial Motor brand name. Obtainable in 18 kilowatts (24 PS; 24 bhp), 22 kilowatts (30 PS; 30 bhp), 25 kilowatts (34 PS; 34 bhp), 31 kilowatts (42 PS; 42 bhp), 33 kilowatts (45 PS; 44 bhp) and 46 kilowatts (63 PS; 62 bhp) outputs, from displacements of 1.2 litres (73 cu in) to 1.8 litres (110 cu in), these Industrial air-cooled motors had been officially stopped in 1991.
Aircraft
AeroConversions AeroVee system

The air-cooled opposed four-cylinder Beetle motors happen utilized for other needs too. Limbach Flugmotoren has actually since 1970 produced more than 6000 qualified plane machines based on the Beetle motor. Sauer features since 1987 produced qualified engines for small airplanes and motorgliders, and it is now also creating engines the ultralight people in European countries.

Particularly interesting try its utilize as an experimental aircraft system. This type of VW system deployment began separately in Europe plus in the US. In Europe this were only available in France directly following the Second World War using the engine inside Volkswagen Kbelwagen that have been abandoned when you look at the plenty in the united states part and peaked using JPX motor. In america this were only available in the 1960s whenever VW Beetle began to arrive there. Some firms nonetheless produce aero machines which are Volkswagen Beetle engine derivatives: Limbach, Sauer, Hapi, Revmaster, Great flatlands, Hummel, the AeroConversions AeroVee motor, among others. Kit airplanes or methods built experimental aircraft were specifically made to make use of these engines. The VW air-cooled motor doesn't require an expensive and sometimes complex gear reduction device to make use of a propeller at efficient cruise RPM. Having its general inexpensive and parts availability, numerous experimental plane are made around the VW machines.

Formula V environment rushing makes use of aircraft made to become maximum overall performance out-of a VW driven aircraft causing battle speeds above 160 mph.

Some aircraft that use the VW motor become:
Volkswagen air-cooled motor installed in an Evans VP-1 Volksplane

Aerosport Quail
Airdrome Bleriot Model XI
Airdrome Dream Fantasy Twin
Airdrome Fokker DR-1
Airdrome Fokker D-VI
Airdrome Fokker D-VII
Airdrome Fokker D-VIII
Airdrome Nieuport 11
Airdrome Nieuport 24
Airdrome Taube
AirLony Skylane
Airmotive EOS 001
Akaflieg Mnchen M23 Saurier
Altair Coelho AC-11
Aurore MB 04 Souris Bulle
Bensen B-8
BK Fliers BK-1
Bounsall Super Prospector
Boyd G.B.1
Bradley Aerobat
Circa Reproductions Nieuport 11
Circa Reproductions Nieuport 17
Corby Starlet
Denney Kitfox
Druine Turbulent
Evans VP-1 Volksplane
Evans VP-2 Volksplane
Falconar F9A
Falconar F11 Sporty
Fisher Avenger V
Fisher Youngster
Flaglor Sky Scooter
Flitzer Z-21
Great Flatlands Simple Eagle
Harmon Der Donnerschlag
Harmon Mister America
Hummel H5
Hummel Ultracruiser Plus
JDT Hi-MAX
JPM 01 Mdoc
Junqua Ibis
Just Superstol
Mignet Pou-du-Ciel
Mini-Hawk Tiger-Hawk
JDT V-MAX
Kolb M3X
Leger Pataplume 1
Light Tiny Aircraft LM-5
Milholland Legal Eagle -- half VW and full means 1 VW engines
Mini Coupe
Monnett Sonerai
Nicollier Menestrel
Parker Jeanie's Teenie
Parrish Dart
Pazmany PL-4A
Pober Pixie
Pottier P.40
Pottier P.130 Coccinelle
Preceptor STOL Master
Preceptor Ultra Pup
Preceptor Stinger
QAC Quickie Q2
RagWing RW1 Ultra-Piet -- half VW and complete means 1 VW engines
RagWing RW7 Duster -- half VW and full means 1 VW machines
Rand Robinson KR-1
Rand Robinson KR-2S
Sisler SF-2A Cygnet
Sonex Plane Onex
Sonex Aircraft Sonex
South Aeronautical Renegade
Southern Aeronautical Scamp
Stewart Headwind
Stolp SA-500 Starlet
Taiwan Dancer TD-3
Taylor Monoplane
Thatcher CX4
Vidor Winner V
Viking Dragonfly
Zenair CH 100

1 / 2 VW
1/2 Volkswagen system attached in a Hummel Bird.

For aircraft use many experimenters looking for a tiny two-cylinder four-stroke system began cutting means 1 VW system blocks in half, producing a two-cylinder, horizontally compared system. The ensuing engine produces 30 to 38 hp (22 to 28 kW). Programs and kits were made available for these conversion rates.

One such conversion is the Carr Twin, created by Dave Carr, launched in January, 1975, into the Experimental plane connection's Sport Aviation magazine. The look obtained the John Livingston Award for the outstanding contribution to low cost traveling also had been granted the Stan Dzik Memorial honor for outstanding design.

Other these include the Total Engine principles MM CB-40 and partner VW.

Some plane that use the one half VW system is:

Belite Ultra Cub
Duane's Hangar Ultrababy
Hummel Bird
Hummel Ultracruiser
Milholland Legal Eagle -- half VW and complete kind 1 VW motors
Pop's Props Pinocchio


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