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Volkswagen VW Official workshop manual Station wagon 1968-1979

The Volkswagen means 2, understood formally (dependent on physical stature) while the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, because the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), was a cabover panel van introduced in 1950 because of the German automaker Volkswagen as its second vehicle model. Appropriate -- and initially deriving from Volkswagen's very first design, the Type 1 (Beetle) -- it had been because of the factory designation kind 2.

As one of the forerunners for the latest cargo and traveler vans, the nature 2 offered increase to forward control rivals in america into the 1960s, such as the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, plus the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the second adopting the kind 2's rear-engine configuration. European competition included the 1960s FF design Renault Estafette as well as the FR design Ford transportation.

Just like the Beetle, the van has received many nicknames globally, including the "microbus", "minibus", and, due to the appeal through the counterculture movement for the 1960s, Hippie van/wagon, whilst still being continue to be iconic for all hippies nowadays.

Brazil contained the very last factory on the planet that created the T2. Production in Brazil stopped on December 31, 2013, as a result of introduction of more strict security regulations in the united kingdom. This marks the end of a time aided by the rear-engine Volkswagens made (after the 2002 termination of their T3 successor in Southern Africa), which originated from 1935 along with their means 1 prototypes.

The idea for Type 2 was credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It offers similarities in idea to your 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion vehicle by Buckminster Fuller, neither of which reached manufacturing.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to buy Type 1s for import into Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover and noticed some thing best ended up being feasible with the inventory means 1 cooking pan. He first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 pound) and putting the driver during the very forward. Manufacturing will have to wait, but since the factory was at ability making the sort 1.

Whenever capacity freed up, a prototype recognized internally as Type 29 ended up being manufactured in a quick three months. The inventory Type 1 cooking pan turned out to be also weak so that the prototype used a ladder framework with unit human anatomy construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase is exactly like the kind 1's. Engineers used again the decrease gear from means 81, allowing the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) level four engine.

Although the aerodynamics for the very first prototypes are poor (with a short drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), designers made use of the wind tunnel at the Specialized college of Braunschweig to enhance the look. Simple modifications such as for example splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" aided the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the sort 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's brand-new ceo Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) authorized the van for production on 19 might 1949 therefore the first production design, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Best two versions are supplied: the Kombi (with two side windows and middle and back chairs that have been quickly removable by one person), plus the retail. The Microbus was included in May 1950, joined up with by the luxurious Microbus in Summer 1951. Throughout 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their particular first 12 months of manufacturing.

An ambulance design was included in December 1951 which repositioned the gas container while watching transaxle, put the extra tire behind the leading seat, and included a "tailgate"-style back home. These services became standard regarding Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s are built in the 1951 design 12 months. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, therefore changed minimal regarding the Type 2s until all are greatly altered in 1968.

Unlike more back engine Volkswagens, which developed continuously over time but never ever spotted the development of all-new products, the Transporter not only developed, but ended up being completely revised occasionally with modifications retrospectively called models "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature just invented after the introduction for the front-drive T4 which replaced the T25). But just years T1 to T3 (or T25 because it's nevertheless known as in Ireland and the uk) can be seen as straight about the Beetle (read below for facts).

The Type 2, together with the 1947 Citron H Van, is one of the primary 'forward controls' vans where motorist ended up being put above the front side roadwheels. They going a trend in European countries, where 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC furthermore utilized the concept. In the usa, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van gone as far as to duplicate the nature 2's rear-engine design, utilizing the Corvair's horizontally compared, air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s--70s Fiat minivans, the kind 2 stayed unique in-being rear-engined. It was a disadvantage for very early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which may maybe not easily be filled through the backside because motor cover intruded on interior space, but generally speaking beneficial in traction and interior noise.

The Volkswagen Samba, in the usa also known as Sunroof Deluxe, ended up being the most luxurious version of the Volkswagen Transporter T1. Volkswagen started creating Sambas in 1951. Into the sixties this variation became popular as a hippie bus.

Originally Volkswagen Vans were categorized according to the range microsoft windows that they had. This particular design had 23 and soon after 21 microsoft windows including eight panoramic windows into the roof. To tell apart they through the normal 23 or 21-window Volkswagen van the name Samba ended up being coined.

Instead of a sliding door during the part the Samba have two pivot doorways. Also the Samba had a fabric sunroof. During those times Volkswagen marketed with the concept of utilising the Samba which will make tourist trips through the Alps.

Sambas are standard painted in 2 colors. Generally, the upper role ended up being coloured white. The 2 colored sections had been split by a decorative strip. More the bus had a so-called "hat": at the front end regarding the van the roofing had been somewhat longer than the car itself to block the sunlight for the driver. The windows have chrome tables in addition to van had a more comprehensive dashboard as compared to typical T1.

When Volkswagen started producing the successor associated with the T1 (the T2) the company additionally ended producing the Samba so are there no Sambas in later variations of Volkswagen Transporter.

Between 1951 and August 1958, approximately 1,000 Camper package sales are made by Westfalia, formal creator of Volkswagen camper conversion rates. In August 1958, the SO (German: Sonderausfhrung, German for "special model") products were introduced.

Westfalia unique designs included the SO-23, -33 -34, -35, -42, -44, and -45.

Westfalia Campers had been offered by Volkswagen dealers global and were also delivered through the Tourist shipping plan --- wherein a client would pick up their new van in Germany, drive it in Europe, then VW would deliver they into buyer's house. Numerous Volkswagen Campers are bought by United states servicemen and delivered house inside 1950s and sixties.

From 1979 until 1992 Westfalia Vanagon had been built.
Traditional products
1970 Camper inside

Numerous foldout chair plans for sleep
Birch plywood internal panels
Laminated plywood cabinetry for space
Icebox or cold-box
Sink (some versions)
Liquids storage space and pump
Electrical hookups
Screened jalousie (Venetian blind) windows
Laminated folding table

Optional products
Westfalia split-windshield camper with options

Attached "pop up" tops with canvas/screen sides
Awnings and part tents
a portable substance toilet
A camping kitchen stove
Different camping equipment
Son or daughter sleeping cot in motorist cab
Space package which suits internal. Are placed between front side seats by sliding door.
Back swing dining table
Tiny map table attached to dash
Automated Transmission (starting in the 1970s)
Air-con (dealership set up) (from 1954)

Awnings and side tents
T1 Camper with part tent

Many tent and part awning styles are readily available as extra-cost improvements. Enthusiasts frequently have difficulty deciding whether one of these brilliant alternatives was particularly offered by and for Westfalia models, or were created and marketed by various other camper conversion suppliers such as for example ASI/Riviera and Sundial.

SO-22 "camping box" Period (1952--58). During this time period no tent by itself had been available from Westfalia, but one could get a striped fabric awning that extended almost the length of the automobile, and longer about six feet out to along side it. The awning framework is apparently similar to that of the SO-23 period big tent described below. This original of Westfalia tents was revealed regarding the cover associated with July, 1955 problem of Preferred Mechanics and in a 1956 brochure that defines they as "a sizable, colorful side awning."

SO-23 luxurious camper (1958--1965). Two tent options are available during this period. One was like the 1952--1958 awning, with the help of detachable part curtains, additionally the other ended up being a little vestibule or foyer that best covered along side it door location. These have no brands aside from "large tent" and "tiny tent," in addition to bigger one seemingly have been offered with and without your bathrooms as explained below.
VW coach with connected small tent
The small tent

The small tent, obtainable in either red/white or blue/gray stripes, is less popular and so try less often observed nowadays. It is made from just one piece of heavy canvas, with a strip of plastic along the base acting as a reinforcement and splash guard. It suits across side-door orifice (and has a gap for one leg associated with roofing rack) as sort of foyer or vestibule. It really is large enough for two adults to stand inside, but little else, and had been most likely meant as a way to getting in and out for the camper in cool or damp weather.

The stripes were about four inches broad. The tent itself is about four legs wide by three ft deep, and inside headroom is more than six ft. A long white zipper works within the center of this front, while the straight back was available and contoured to match the coach. The framework consists of four material poles which fit into pockets within the top of the tent and lock together to create a square. Feet on two of this poles fit into brackets that have been bolted toward camper's roof. Two additional poles dogleg in to the top framework but smaller chain-hooks to put on the doorways open. The lower ends among these poles fit into holes inside jack supports. Rubberized grommets protect the paint in the doors therefore the jack things. The lower edge of the tent are protected on floor with about a dozen material stakes. Each stake is all about six ins long and it is formed from hardened 1/4" rods with a loop at one end. Two space bags manufactured from (usually matching) canvas with leather-based straps become furnished when it comes to tent and poles.
VW coach with affixed large tent
The large tent with recommended awning aids

The large tent, probably a revision of the SO-22 awning design, has additionally been called the "privy tent" because most systems seen nowadays have your bathrooms when you look at the rear side wall. This is certainly a zippered, metre-square room that shines toward the back, and is held up by telescoping poles and man ropes. Open grommets are put close to the top for air flow.

This tent is frequently observed in a yellow/blue-grey stripe, but had been additionally obtainable in red/white, orange/blue, orange/white, and green/white. The tent's framework mounts to brackets on the roof and bumpers. Leading bumper mount are a flat plate of metal bent into an open S or Z form. Tent poles become steel, either black or grey, around 2 cm in diameter, and you will find fourteen areas that must be assembled to generate a rectangular, peaked awning with help rods causing the bumpers. Once the awning is establish, curtains may be attached to the three outer edges (with Tenax lift-the-dot fasteners) to realize a weatherproof - though windowless and floorless - lightweight shelter. Leather straps secure the sidewalls into help poles, and stakes keep the base sides down much like the small tent. One more collection of poles and stakes had been accessible to enable the exterior flap becoming extended horizontally as another awning, leading to a sizable shaded area quietly for the coach.
VW bus with connected freestanding tent
The framed tent

The framed tent (1965--1967). This is actually the largest and a lot of colorful associated with the Westfalia side tents. It really is unlike the earlier small and large awning-based tents in two crucial techniques: the connection of huge, screened windows privately curtains, and a free-standing framework that enables the tent to-be left within campsite whilst the bus is driven away for food or part trips. The tent even offers a rear door which can be zipped closed at these types of instances. Both front and rear flaps is rolled up and presented open by cloth ties or (on later products) straps with lift-the-dot fasteners.

Here is the best Westfalia tent created for Split-windshield bus and is perhaps many collectible version; its tents alone, in good condition, have already been marketed for more than US,000.
VW bus with freestanding bay window ten-
Freestanding Model (1968 and later buses)

Early bay-window tent. When Volkswagen transitioned to the bay-window or breadloaf model with huge, solitary curved windshield and sliding side door, the Westfalia camper was altered to include an angled poptop. This build provided area for a big kid's cot expense, and on later brands, the poptop had been further increased to suit the full bed adequate for two adults.

The add-on side tent underwent a whole redesign. The new design (described in promotion content as an Add-a-Room tent or a Motent) superficially resembles the belated Split-windshield's framed tent as a whole shape and colors, it is otherwise rather different. For just one, the tent's framework has become outside, utilizing the fabric sustained by elastic loops and synthetic hooks, notably like a shower curtain. Instead of an individual opening front side panel, there is a zippered screen door in the middle of the leading (part out of the bus) with a small awning flap that can be decreased for wind and rainfall safeguards. This tent furthermore features a waterproof flooring, together with attachment method on the automobile side causes a securely closable housing (in other words., no more space underneath the coach floors).

Various other WV tents: different internet sites (read hyperlinks in References part) provide information about various other Westfalia (and otherwise VW-supplied) tents, plus aftermarket tents furnished by various other makers, in Vanagon and Transporter/Eurovan periods (1980 to provide).

M-Codes are used to identify the automobile factory alternatives. Beginning in 1958, a metal plate had been riveted into the back of this correct front seat. The dish lists the time of manufacture, and different choices that were integrated into the automobile.

The knowledge included the time of make, the possibility codes, the export destination, design number and paint finish (typically a durable finish described as Nitro-Lacquer), the paint colors codes therefore the VIN or serial quantity.

The idea for the Type 2 are paid to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It has similarities in concept towards the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion automobile by Buckminster Fuller, neither which hit production.) Pon checked out Wolfsburg in 1946, going to buy Type 1s for import into the Netherlands, where he spotted an improvised parts-mover and discovered one thing best ended up being feasible utilising the stock kind 1 pan. He initially sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 pound) and placing the driver within very front. Manufacturing would need to wait, but whilst the factory is at ability producing the kind 1.

When capacity freed up, a prototype understood internally given that kind 29 was manufactured in a quick 3 months. The stock kind 1 cooking pan proved to be too weak so that the prototype put a ladder framework with unit body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase is the same as the sort 1's. Engineers used again the reduction gear from the kind 81, enabling the 1.5 great deal van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) level four system.

Even though aerodynamics regarding the earliest prototypes are poor (with a preliminary drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), designers put the wind tunnel during the Technical college of Braunschweig to optimize the look. Simple modifications eg splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" assisted the production Type 2 attain Cd=0.44, exceeding the kind 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's latest chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) approved the van for manufacturing on 19 might 1949 as well as the very first production model, today designated kind 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models are supplied: the Kombi (with two part windows and middle and back seating that have been effortlessly detachable by anyone), while the professional. The Microbus is added in May 1950, joined up with because of the luxurious Microbus in Summer 1951. In most 9,541 Type 2s had been manufactured in their particular very first 12 months of production.

An ambulance design ended up being included in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank while watching transaxle, place the extra tire behind the leading seat, and added a "tailgate"-style back home. These services became standard regarding the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s had been built in the 1951 model season. They certainly were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, therefore altered the least of Type 2s until all were heavily customized in 1968.

Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved continuously with time but never ever saw the development of all-new designs, the Transporter not just evolved, but had been completely revised periodically with variants retrospectively named versions "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature just devised after the introduction of this front-drive T4 which changed the T25). But just generations T1 to T3 (or T25 because it's nonetheless known as in Ireland and the uk) can be seen as right related to the Beetle (read below for details).

The Type 2, combined with 1947 Citron H Van, become among the first 'forward controls' vans where the motorist ended up being put above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in European countries, where in actuality the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC furthermore made use of the concept. In the us, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went in terms of to duplicate the sort 2's rear-engine layout, with the Corvair's horizontally compared, air-cooled motor for power. With the exception of the Greenbrier as well as other 1950s--70s Fiat minivans, the kind 2 stayed unique in-being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage when it comes to very early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which may perhaps not effortlessly be loaded from backside since the engine address intruded on interior space, but generally speaking beneficial in grip and interior sounds.
Volkswagen Samba coach
Example of a 1961 Volkswagen kind II flatbed pickup truck.
Rail-going draisine

The sort 2 is available as a:

Panel van, a distribution van without side microsoft windows or rear seats.
Double-door Panel Van, a distribution van without part microsoft windows or back chairs and cargo doorways on both sides.
Tall roofing Panel Van (German: Hochdach), a shipments van with increased roofing.
Kombi, from German: Kombinationskraftwagen (combination motor vehicle), with side microsoft windows and detachable rear seating, both a traveler and a cargo vehicle combined.
Coach, also known as a Volkswagen Caravelle, a van with an increase of comfortable internal reminiscent of traveler vehicles considering that the 3rd generation.
Samba-Bus, a van with skylight windows and fabric sunroof, first generation just, also called a luxurious Microbus. These were marketed for touring the Alps.
Flatbed pickup truck, or solitary taxi, additionally readily available with wide burden bed.
Crew taxi pick-up, a flatbed truck with longer cab and two rows of seating, also known as a Doka, from German: Doppelkabine.
Westfalia camping van, "Westy", with Westfalia roof and internal. Included optional "pop up" top.
Adventurewagen camping van, with high roof and camping models from Adventurewagen.
Semi-camping van that can in addition remain put as a traveler vehicles and transporter, compromising some camping conveniences. "Multivan" or "Weekender", offered by the next generation on.

Aside from these factory variants, there have been a variety of 3rd party conversions available, several of that have been provided through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire machines and ladder vehicles, and camping van sales by companies apart from Westfalia. There were also 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines designed for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1955.

In South Africa, its referred to as a well-loved variation of frozen dessert van (earliest, 2nd and 3rd generations). The mere sight of one (in Southern Africa) sparks the familiar rhyme: we shout, We shout, We all scream for Ice-Cream!
First generation (T1; 1950--1967)
Volkswagen Means 2 (T1)
VW Type2 T1c Kombi.jpg
Maker Volkswagen
Production 1950--1967 (European countries and US)
1950--1975 (Brazil)
System Wolfsburg, Germany
Hanover, Germany
So Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Melbourne, Australia
Human body and chassis
Course lighter commercial vehicle (M)
Body style 5-door panel van
5-door minibus
2-door pickup (regular taxi)
4-door pickup (team cab)
Design RR layout
System Volkswagen Team T1 platform
System 1.1 L B4 (petrol)
1.2 L B4 (petrol)
1.5 L B4 (petrol)
1.6 L B4 (petrol)
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 4,280 mm (168.5 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Level 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

Initial generation associated with the Volkswagen kind 2 with the split windshield, informally labeled as the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among modern fans, had been created from 8 March 1950 through end associated with the 1967 design season. From 1950 to 1956, the T1 (not called that during the time) had been built in Wolfsburg; from 1956, it had been built during the new Transporter factory in Hanover. Just like the Beetle, initial Transporters made use of the 1100 Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in), DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp), air-cooled flat-four-cylinder 'boxer' system mounted within the rear. This is enhanced toward 1200 -- an 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in) 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp) in 1953. A higher compression ratio became standard in 1955; while an unusual very early type of the 30 kW (41 PS; 40 bhp) engine debuted exclusively on the Type 2 in 1959. This engine became so uncharacteristically problematic that Volkswagen remembered all 1959 Transporters and replaced the machines with an updated version of the 30 kW system. Any 1959 versions that hold that very early motor today tend to be real survivors. Because the motor was completely stopped at the outset, no components were previously made available.

The first versions associated with the T1 until 1955 had been known as the "Barndoor" (retrospectively labeled as T1a because the 1990s), owing to the huge backside motor address, whilst subsequent variations with a slightly changed system (the roofline over the windshield was offered), smaller system bay, and 15" roadwheels instead of the earliest 16" people tend to be nowadays called the T1b (once more, just called this since the 1990s, considering VW's restrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. naming program.). Through the 1963 design 12 months, when the rear door was made wide (identical to on bay-window or T2), the car could be described as the T1c. 1964 additionally spotted the development of an optional sliding door the passenger/cargo room rather than the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans.

In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter ended up being introduced as a factory choice. They showcased a cargo capacity of 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) as opposed to the earlier 750 kg (1,653 pound), small but larger 14" roadwheels, and a 1.5 Le, 31 kW (42 PS; 42 bhp) DIN system. This was so successful that only per year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter had been stopped. The 1963 design year introduced the 1500 system -- 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in) as standard products on United States markets at 38 kW (52 PS; 51 bhp) DIN with an 83 mm (3.27 in) bore, 69 mm (2.72 in) stroke, and 7.8:1 compression proportion. Once the Beetle obtained the 1.5 L motor when it comes to 1967 model season, their energy ended up being increased to 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) DIN.
1966 Volkswagen Kombi (The United States)

German manufacturing stopped after the 1967 model 12 months; however, the T1 however is built in Brazil until 1975, with regards to ended up being customized with a 1968--79 T2-style forward end, and huge 1972-vintage taillights into the alleged "T1.5" and created until 1996. The Brazilian T1s are not just like the final German systems (the T1.5 is in your area produced in Brazil utilising the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to reduce retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre-1965 human anatomy style is retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doorways and five-stud 205 mm (8.1 in) Pitch Circle Diameter wheels. Wheel monitors diverse between German and Brazilian manufacturing sufficient reason for 14-inch, 15-inch and 16-inch wheel variations but generally forward track varied from 1290 mm to 1310 mm and back track from 1370 mm to 1390 mm.
VW coach Type 2 (T1), hippie colors

Among United states lovers, it is common to refer on the latest models of because of the amount of their particular windows. The fundamental Kombi or Bus is the 11-window (a.k.a. three-window bus due to three negative microsoft windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin home windows, six rear part microsoft windows, and something back window. The DeLuxe design showcased eight back side windows and two back place microsoft windows, rendering it the 15-window (not available in European countries). Meanwhile, the sunroof DeLuxe using its additional eight tiny skylight house windows try, appropriately, the 23-window. Through the 1964 model 12 months, using its wide rear home, the rear corner house windows are discontinued, creating the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. The 23- and soon after 21-window alternatives each bring the nickname 'Samba', or in Australian Continent, officially 'Alpine'.

A number of manufacturing alternatives can restrict swing axle dealing with dilemmas, with differing achievements:

Anti-roll bar: As a build choice, a front side anti-roll club which could ameliorate the swing axle automobile's control -- moving body weight transfer toward forward outboard tire, considerably decreasing rear slip angles---thereby preventing potential oversteer.
Single-pivot aim: Mercedes-Benz addressed the control issues by making swing axles with a single-pivot point operating beneath the differential, hence better underneath the axle. This setup markedly decreased the habit of "jack-up" therefore the later lowest pivot swing-axle equipped vehicles are praised in contemporary publications with regards to their managing. The low-pivot swing-axle remained in manufacturing with Mercedes-Benz W108 280SE and 300SEL until 1972. It absolutely was suited to the 300SEL 6.3, that has been throughout the very early 70s the globes quickest production sedan. AMG-modified 6.3s were also raced because of the stock move axle.
Tire stress differential: The Renault Dauphine, Volkswagen Beetle and first-generation Chevrolet Corvair (1960--1964) made use of a tire stress differential technique to get rid of oversteer attributes of their move axle suspensions --- particularly reasonable front and high rear tire force --- which induced understeer. None the less, the tire pressure differential strategy offered a significant disadvantage: owners and mechanics could accidentally but easily re-introduce oversteer traits by over-inflating the front tires (this is certainly, to typical pressures for other vehicles with other suspension methods) or by inflating all tires into exact same force. The potency of this option was criticized in litigation in america during 1960s.
Z-bar and roll-inducing springs: Mercedes-Benz launched, to greatly help their particular low-pivot swing-axle, a coil spring installed transversally over the differential, which would transfer load from one side to another, to be able to push down one wheel if the other side went up. This coil springtime increases the burden bearing ability associated with the rear suspension system, so a fresh reduced stress group of springs is substituted the typical your to maintain ride suppleness. An identical result is achieved by VW's Z-bar, a roll-bar, unlike anti-rolling bar. Both products increase the rolling inclination for the back axles, thus decreasing the oversteering tendency. Aftermarket roll-inducing springs, also called camber compensators, are offered for Porsche, VW and very early Corvairs, which minimize oversteering tendencies at the cost of increasing suspension system harshness.

In late 1967, the next generation of the Volkswagen means 2 (T2) is introduced. It had been built-in Germany until 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel are produced from 1970 to 1994. Designs before 1971 in many cases are called the T2a (or "Early Bay"), while models after 1972 are called the T2b (or "later Bay").
1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup (The Netherlands)
1973--1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) van (Australia)
T2 made use of as an ambulance in Brazil

This second-generation kind 2 destroyed its unique split front side windshield, and ended up being somewhat larger and dramatically heavier than its forerunner. Their common nicknames become Breadloaf and Bay-window, or Loaf and Bay for short. At 1.6 L and 35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) DIN, the engine has also been somewhat larger. The latest design additionally performed away aided by the swing axle back suspension and transfer cardboard boxes previously used to increase trip level. As an alternative, half-shaft axles fitted with continual velocity joints increased trip height with no crazy changes in camber of Beetle-based move axle suspension system. The up-to-date coach transaxle is generally sought after by off road racers utilizing air-cooled Volkswagen equipment.

The T2b is launched by means of progressive change over three-years. The first versions showcased rounded bumpers incorporating one step for use once the door had been open (replaced by indented bumpers without actions on subsequent products), front doors that exposed to 90 from the human anatomy, no lip regarding forward guards, unique engine hatches, and crescent environment intakes in D-pillars (later models following the Type 4 engine choice had been offered, posses squared down intakes). The 1971 means 2 featured a unique, 1.6 L system with double consumption ports on each cylinder mind and is DIN-rated at 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp). An essential changes came with the development of front disc brakes and new roadwheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. Until 1972, front indicators were set low in the nose as opposed to at the top of either region of the fresh air grille -- giving increase for their getting nicknamed "minimal Lights". 1972's more prominent change was a bigger motor compartment to fit the more expensive 1.7- to 2.0-litre machines through the Volkswagen kind 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable back apron and introduced the more expensive late end lights. Air inlets had been additionally enlarged to allow for the increased cooling atmosphere wants associated with the larger motors.

In 1971 the 1600cc means 1 engine as found in the Beetle, is supplemented aided by the 1700cc Type 4 system -- whilst ended up being originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) designs. European vans held the option of upright fan Type 1 1600 motor but the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models.
Pre-facelift (left) and facelifted (appropriate) Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans (Australian Continent)

When you look at the Type 2, the kind 4 motor is a choice the 1972 model 12 months onward. This engine was standard in designs destined when it comes to people and Canada. Just with the kind 4 motor did an automatic transmission come to be designed for the first time inside 1973 design year. Both engines displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW (67 PS; 66 bhp) because of the manual transmission and 46 kW (63 PS; 62 bhp) with the automatic. The nature 4 engine is enlarged to 1.8 L and 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) DIN for the 1974 model 12 months and again to 2.0 L and 52 kW (71 PS; 70 bhp) DIN when it comes to 1976 design seasons. The 1978 2.0 L now showcased hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the requirement to sporadically adjust the valve clearances as on earlier designs. The 1975 and soon after U.S. design many years got Bosch L-Jetronic electronic gasoline injection as standard products; 1978 is the very first seasons for electric ignition, utilizing a hall result sensor and digital operator, getting rid of maintenance-requiring contact-breaker guidelines. As with every Transporter motors, the focus in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The kind 4 engines were considerably more robust and sturdy as compared to kind 1 engines, particularly in Transporter provider.

In 1972, when it comes to 1973 design year, external revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared down and set greater within the valance, over the headlights. Furthermore, square-profiled bumpers, which became standard before end of T2 in 1979, had been launched in 1973. Crash security enhanced with this changes considering a compressible structure behind leading bumper. This intended your T2b is effective at encounter US security specifications for passenger automobiles of that time, though not essential of vans. The "VW" emblem on front valance became slightly small.

Later on model modifications had been mostly mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had attained their final form. Extremely later in T2's build lives, during late 1970s, 1st prototypes of kind 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) had been built and tested.

Volkswagen Transporter Type 2 T2

Site about Volkswagen Transporter Type 2: history, technical solutions, the use of the family and the business, development of the series.

Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) was the third generation of the Volkswagen Transporter and was marketed under various nameplates worldwide – including as the Transporter ...

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Volkswagen Type 2 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a cabover ...

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Volkswagen VW Station Wagon/BusType 2 1968 - 1979 Owners Service & Repair Manual 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978


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